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Ověřená technologie pro předběžnou (pilotní) analýzu možností recyklace nikl-kadmiových akumulátorů žárovou cestou


Šnita Dalimil (61910)
Ing. Pocedič Jaromír Ph.D. (61910)

Číslo projektu: L01402 CENTEM+


The laboratory tube furnace is positioned vertically. A refractory retort made of inconel tube is placed in the furnace. The
retort is filled with cadmium plates from disassembled accumulators (a batch of maximum five kilograms, formatted for
suitable dimensions and put together in the form of cylindrical sandwiches) with the addition of carbon in the form of
coke or carburizing agent. The boards are placed on the grid. The retort is covered by a copper flange at the top. The
retort is hung on a beam that is placed on an electronic scale. This makes it possible to measure the weight loss of the
charge. The cadmium vapors condense to form solid metal cadmium in the lower part of the retort (under the grate, in
the condenser), which protrudes down the furnace and therefore has a low temperature. Thus, weight loss represents the
loss of oxygen that is produced by the decomposition of cadmium oxide and leaves in the form of carbon monoxide or
carbon dioxide. Metallic cadmium is stored (accumulated) in a capacitor. When the decomposition is complete, the retort
is moved upward so that the capacitor is inserted into the furnace heat zone. Solid cadmium will melt, which will flow
from the retort into the water container, where it will solidify again. The temperature is measured in the retort before and
after the grate. The gases from the furnace are exhausted by a water ring vacuum pump. The data from the furnace,
weighing and thermocouple regulators are processed by the data acquisition system. The obtained data are evaluated
using balance, transport and kinetic equations. The obtained process parameters are used in the construction of
industrial furnaces (500 kg charge) and will be used in their operation. The technology enables analysis of recycling
possibilities of other types and different shapes of batteries and accumulators at high temperatures.