The Department of Materials and Technologies, NTC, UWB, is concerned with photovoltaic technologies. It is located in a building with a useful floor area of600 square metresand its labs are equipped with the following instruments:
The Laboratory of Thin Film Depositions is equipped with:
- a chemical vapour deposition apparatus CVD (Samco PD-220N), which enables creating thin films and multi-layered silicon-based films by means of chemical deposition.
- a physical vapour deposition apparatus PVD (BOC Edwards 600), which enables creating thin films of transparent conductive oxides by means of a physical method.
- a five-chamber CVD apparatus (PECVD Cluster Tool System), which enables creating simple as well as complex tandem structures of photovoltaic cells.
The Laboratory of Electron Microscopy is equipped with:
- a transmission electron microscope JEM-2200FS with ultra-high resolution suitable especially for investigating quantum structures in materials at the nanoscale
- a scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM-7600F with an auto-emission cathode fitted with EBSD, EDS and WDS detectors, which are used not only for investigating the microstructure and spatial homogeneity of layers, but also for elemental analysis and electron microdiffraction
- a scanning electron microscope FEI Quanta 200 for routine analyses
- equipment for preparation of specimens, namely an ion polisher and cryo ion slicer
The Laboratory of X-ray Diffraction is equipped with:
- an X-ray diffraction meter AXS Bruker D8 with Eulerian cradle, a 2D position-sensitive detector and polycapillary optics.
- a powder X-ray diffraction meter Panalytical X´Pert Pro with an ultra-fast semiconductor detector Pixcel
- a fixture for measuring thin films, a high-temperature chamber AP 1200 and a primary and secondary monochomator.
In the laboratory of X-ray diffraction, it is possible to investigate the phase composition of materials, microstructure (namely the size of crystallites, micro- and macro-deformations and preferred orientation of crystallites), 2D diffractograms and in-situ phase transformations at high temperatures.
The Laboratory of Optical Spectroscopy is equipped with:
- a UV-Visible spectrophotometer Specord 210 BU and a spectroscopic elipsometer SE850, whose spectra are used to determine the thickness of layers and optical parameters, for example, spectral transmittance, reflectance, the spectral refraction index, spectral extinction coefficient and optical width of energy gaps in semiconductors.
- a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer Nicolet 380 fitted with an iTR Ge attachment for obtaining information about the microstructural factor and concentration and distribution of hydrogen in Si layers.
- a DXR Raman microscope used to analyze a local microstructure and spatial inhomogeneity of layers.
The Laboratory of Supplementary Experimental Methods is equipped with:
- a μPG 101 maskless laser lithography system for creating photonic structures
- a solar simulator SOL3A Oriel used to analyse parameters of photovoltaic cells. Its output is a volt-ampere characteristic used to obtain information on the open-circuit voltage VOC, short-circuit current density JSC, fill factor FF and conversion efficiency η.
- a KLA-Tencor P-6 profilometer used to obtain information on the thickness of layers, thickness homogeneity and surface topography of created layers.
- a nanoindenter XP used to measure mechanical properties of thin films.
Equipment for measuring the quantum efficiency of light absorption in semiconductor materials will soon be purchased. Currently, the process of selecting the supplier is in progress.